Daylighting performances and visual comfort in Le Corbusier’s Architecture. The daylighting analysis of seven unrealized residential buildings
M. Iommi, (2019), Energy and Buildings Vol. 184, pp. 242-263, Elsevier, ISSN
Abstract_ This study is focused on the detection of the expected natural lighting levels of some unrealized residential houses of Le Corbusier. The attention and the interest of Le Corbusier on the topic of residential buildings are widely recognized. Moreover, it also relates to the research of growing performances about the quality of indoor environments, where the daylighting has certainly represented an important aspect, which would need further researches.The study aims to highlight new and inedited daylighting analysis for seven unrealized projects: Maison Fuerte, Maison Cumenge, Maison Canneel, Maisons pour Ingenieurs, Maison Fueter, Maisons des Peons and Maisons Rurales, designed by Le Corbusier, confirming and discovering some design criteria of this master of Modern Architecture related to the daylighting. According to the original drawings, available from the Fondation Le Corbusier, reliable and accurate virtual reconstructions of the projects have been made with which daylighting simulations have been performed for every project and indoor spaces. The daylighting simulations are run, by using advanced solar-lighting design tools, which use international standard calculations, providing results about illumination, luminance, daylight autonomy and daylighting factor. In this study, it has been used an experimental method to discover and to evaluate the daylighting performances of the seven unrealized housing projects. The results of the simulations, processed with values, indices and graphical representations, give a quantitative description of the natural light with high reliability, and with it has been possible to highlight the sensible awareness of Le Corbusier regarding daylighting, and considering the natural light as a fundamental parameter into his design strategy.
Fonti, Fontane, Lavatoi, Fontanili. Le acque nel Comune di Macerata
S. Iommi, M. Troscè, G. Pasquali, (2018), Simple Ed., Italia, ISBN 8869243370
Abbiamo cercato di ricostruire la storia di quante più fontane fosse possibile, ma nonostante esse siano citate nei Catasti di Macerata fin dal Medio Evo e negli Statuti cittadini del 1553, mancano documenti specifici, […] quindi per questa ricerca è stato indispensabile scendere in campo, nel vero senso della parola e cercare in campagna là dove qualche indizio paesaggistico o qualche scarno documento diceva di cercare per trovare i segni di quella che un tempo era una fonte, un pozzo, un lavatoio […]. E camminando ne abbiamo trovate tante, dappertutto, guidati a volte dalla toponomastica, dalla odonomastica, dai ricordi, dal passaparola, fontane più volte restaurate, poi abbandonate e oggi nascoste dalla vegetazione: così è nato e si è sviluppato questo libro.
Strumenti di supporto alla progettazione energetica ed ambientale degli edifici
M. Iommi, (2017), Politecnica, Maggioli Ed. Italia, ISBN 978-88-916-2494-9
Questo testo, propone uno studio organico in chiave progettuale sui temi della simulazione energetica e degli strumenti di supporto alla progettazione energetica degli edifici, a partire dal valore progettuale che gli strumenti di analisi e simulazione ricoprono durante il processo di progettazione fino alla descrizione dei criteri e delle caratteristiche proprie degli strumenti. Lo studio si muove all’interno di un quadro generale, toccando numerose tematiche come il processo di progettazione, il comfort ambientale, l’efficienza energetica e l’informatica e che valorizza il ruolo del progetto di architettura, senza perdere di vista tuttavia le specifiche nozioni che caratterizzano la simulazione energetica. Particolare attenzione è riservata all’evoluzione storica e alle metodologie di impiego degli strumenti che insieme costituiscono un bagaglio conoscitivo fondamentale per poter gestire correttamente il complesso ed eterogeneo panorama di strumenti esistenti dedicati.
Il ruolo degli strumenti di analisi e simulazione energetica è qui considerato centrale sin dalle prime fasi del processo progettuale. Ed è proprio la dimensione progettuale mai separata dalle prassi e dalle tecniche di impiego degli strumenti di simulazione energetica a costituire il motivo conduttore del testo.
The mediterranean smart adaptive wall. An experimental design of a smart and adaptive facade module for the mediterranean climate
M. Iommi, (2018), Energy and Buildings Vol .158, pp. 1450-1460, Elsevier, ISSN 0378-7788
Abstract_ The design proposal for an experimental prototype of a smart and adaptive facade module is presented, including advanced materials, like phase change materials and high insulation materials, based on a drywooden modular constructive system, with high feasibility and high thermal performances, addressing energy and environmental topics and building technology issues. Objective of this work is the energy evaluation of an experimental facade module called The Mediterranean smart adaptive wall (MSAW) which is designed and optimized for the Mediterranean climate to suite different climate conditions, typical of dry, warm to hot climate contexts, permitting to modify the internal sequence of layers in relation to the different thermal performances requirements, coupling high thermal capacity with reduced thickness. The experimental facade module is a smart constructive solution, easily manageable, with fast and smart assembly process on site and with customizable external finishes. The facade module is composed by a modular frame, realized by plywood timber sheets with modular components too which provide the wall shape without other vertical structural elements. The modular frame is subdivided intotwo main layer, realized by vertical and horizontal timber elements and interior and external plywoodsheets. Into the frame there are wood wool insulation, a vapour barrier sheet in polyethylene, PCM and VIP insulation.
The natural light in the Italian rationalist architecture of Ex G.I.L. of Mario Ridolfi in Macerata
M. Iommi, (2016), Energy and Buildings Vol. 113, pp. 1450-1460, Elsevier, ISSN 0378-7788
Abstract_ This study presents the analysis and the evaluation of indoor daylighting levels of Ex G.I.L. building (1935)in Macerata (Italy), designed by Architect Mario Ridolfi (1904–1984), according to the original composi-tion and internal distribution, which have been deeply modified during time. The Ex G.I.L. building is avery representative example of Italian rationalist architecture. The virtual reconstruction of the originalaspect of the building has been possible thanks to the study of sources and of original documents.The simulations, produced to evaluate and to represent the levels of indoor natural light, have involveda very reliable 3D virtual reconstruction of the original building about size, building components dimen-sions and internal distributions, allowing at the same time to provide reliable and new representationsof the original building. The daylighting simulations are run, using advanced solar-lighting design tools,which use international technical lighting calculations, according to ISO/CIE standards. Finally, the dataand simulations obtained are compared and evaluated with current regulatory standards.The use of current energy simulation tools on the study of this architecture of the past, shows a veryhigh availability of natural light and optimum light distribution of indoor environments designed byRidolfi, highlighting a specifically design attention dedicated to this purpose, where the excellent formalsolution, according to the rationalist style, includes the achievement of optimum natural lighting andvisual comfort.
Evaluation of ease-to-use energy building design tools for Solar Access Analysis in urban contexts
M. Iommi, G. Losco, (2016), International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, pp. 521-530, Waset, ISSN 2010-377
Abstract_ Current building sector is focused on reduction of energy requirements, on renewable energy generation and on regeneration of existing urban areas. These targets need to be solved with a systemic approach, considering several aspects simultaneously such as climate conditions, lighting conditions, solar radiation, PV potential, etc. The solar access analysis is an already known method to analyze the solar potentials, but in current years, simulation tools have provided more effective opportunities to perform this type of analysis, in particular in the early design stage. Nowadays, the study of the solar access is related to the easiness of the use of simulation tools, in rapid and easy way, during the design process. This study presents a comparison of three simulation tools, from the point of view of the user, with the aim to highlight differences in the easy-to-use of these tools. Using a real urban context as case study, three tools; Ecotect, Townscope and Heliodon, are tested, performing models and simulations and examining the capabilities and output results of solar access analysis. The evaluation of the ease-to-use of these tools is based on some detected parameters and features, such as the types of simulation, requirements of input data, types of results, etc. As a result, a framework is provided in which features and capabilities of each tool are shown. This framework shows the differences among these tools about functions, features and capabilities. The aim of this study is to support users and to improve the integration of simulation tools for solar access with the design process.
Using building energy models in the evaluation of retrofit strategies for industrial buildings in Italy
M. Iommi, G. Losco, (2015), International Journal of Architectonic, Spatial and Environmental Design Vol. 10 Issue 4, pp. 9-19, Common Ground, ISSN 2325-1662
Abstract_ The presented research is an experimental study to develop energy saving potential strategies in prefabricated industrial buildings, using energy models to compare and to evaluate different energy retrofit solutions. Latest European policy and programs focus on research about retrofitting and refurbishment of the existing building, in particular about the industrial building which is considered a strategic sector not only for improving energy efficiency and sustainability but also for improving the economy, jobs, and competitiveness. Much of the industrial sector in Italy is obsolete, with high energy consumptions. The key factor in saving energy with a prefabricated industrial building is the thermal performance of the envelope because the reduction of energy consumption for full air conditioning is related to the thermal performance of the envelope. This study focuses on building envelopes and highlights a passive approach. This study uses some energy building design tools, to investigate how different types of envelopes affect the energy consumptions in different dimensional industrial buildings under common scenarios. Comparing existing industrial buildings in Italy with dimensional statistic data, and the most diffuse building elements, like concrete prefabricated wall panels, etc., Three case studies are defined, and energy simulations are performed. The energy model result provides a range of average energy analysis to compare and to evaluate energy efficiency and show the potential energy benefits obtainable with various, single or multiple, refurbishment options.
The design and the evaluation of a prototype of responsive wall system
M. Iommi, G. Losco, E. Barbera, N. Viviani, (2017), in: Advanced Building Skin Conference 2017, Berna, ISBN: 978-3-9524883-1-7
Abstract_ A design proposal for an experimental energy responsive dry wall system is presented, including innovative materials, like phase change materials and high insulated materials, based on a dry wooden modular constructive system, with easy assembly and energy flow performances. The wall system is designed to be arranged for several different climate conditions, permitting to modify the internal sequence of layers in relation to different thermal performances requirements, coupling high thermal capacity, producible with low cost, easily constructable or removable and manageable with custom external finishes. The virtual prototype is a modular wall panel, realized with modular components too which provide the wall shape without other vertical structural elements. The wall panel is composed by a plywood timber frame, subdivided into two main layer, realized by vertical and horizontal wood elements and interior and external wood panels. Into the frame there are wood wool insulation, a vapour barrier sheet in polyethylene, PCM and VIP insulation. An air gap is designed to arrange the energy performances providing, if necessary, for a ventilated façade or increasing insulation material thickness.
Thermal comfort for older adults. An experimental study on the thermal requirements for older adults
M. Iommi (2015), in: CISBAT 2015 International Conference Sustainability from nano to urban scale, pp. 357-362, EPFL, Losanna, ISBN 978-2-9701052-1-3
Abstract_ The purpose of this study is to define some specific thermal comfort requirements for older adults, with specific profiles and a range of related parameters, using software and virtual test rooms according to current evaluation methods. To perform this study, analyses and simulations are performed, using tools such as CBE Thermal Comfort Tools, Ashrae Thermal Comfort Tool and Perla Pmv. With these tools are simulated some situations in real conditions, such as rooms with different floor areas, different activities and clothings, and different internal gains. All the simulations and analyses are based on investigations on older adults behaviors. The results yeld specific values and indices, related to thermal comfort, able to represent the ranges of older adults thermal parameters and to define some daily profiles.
Comparative energy models for industrial buildings thermal performances
M. Iommi, G. Losco, (2014), in: Constec 2014 Architectural research findings: building construction, management, technology, pp. 390-394, ISBN 978-84-617-0504-7
Abstract_ An experimental study is presented concerning development of energy saving potential in prefabricated industrial buildings, through comparative energy simulation models. According latest European policy and programs focus the research field is into retrofit and refurbishment of existing building. The building stock in industrial sector in Italy is rather obsolete, with low comfort conditions and high energy consumption. In Italy, only few studies deal with this topic to support assessments about average actual or potential energy saving quality of industrial buildings. This study, based on selected case-studies, aimed to establish general background and effective criteria for refurbishment actions. One “key factor” for energy saving in prefabricated industrial building is the thermal performance of the envelope (walls, roofs and windows), where reduction of energy consumption, for full air conditioning, is directly related to envelope thermal performance. Energy building design tools have been used, such as Ecotect Analysis, Heat 2.0 and Wufi Pro, to investigate how different envelope assemblages affect the energy consumptions in industrial buildings with different size starting on common scenarios. Proceeding from statistic data of existing common buildings in Italy, and most diffused building elements, like concrete prefabricated wall panels etc, some general case studies are defined and used to run energy simulations. The results give back a range of average energy analysis to compare and evaluate mean efficiency factor of real buildings and show potential energy benefits obtainable with various single or multiple refurbishment options.
Design support for early design strategies toward near zero energy building
M. Iommi, E. Barbera, (2014), in: Constec 2014 Architectural research findings: building construction, management, technology, pp. 371–374, ISBN 978-84-617-0504-7
Abstract_ In this paper is proposed a way to enhance the coupling of the architectural design process with energy performances by using fitting energy building design tools. NZEBuildings require integrate design and optimized strategies in order to achieve targets as very low energy requirements. Efficient design solution according to NZEB performances needs to consider many important architectural aspects already in the early design stages of the design process, because energy performances outputs and indoor comfort levels are of fundamental importance for these buildings and should therefore be considered by the designer at the very earliest design stages. If NZEB buildings will diffuse then designers will have to do more. To allow the designer to begin with rudimentary forms, experimenting with effects of orientation, materials, windows size and distribution, shading systems, etc, today there are energy building design tools able to support designer in the early design stages. Some energy building design tools can follow, quickly and in a smart manner, the design process until the final functional and formal solution of the project.